I first heard of a book called the Necronomicon in 2004 when someone on a pagan forum asked if anyone there knew anything about it and whether or not it was real. Naturally curious I did some Googling and eventually ascertained that it was the fictional creation of author H.P. Lovecraft developed for use in his stories.
The Necronomicon was never actually written, but instead was meant to be a common point of background for Lovecraft’s stories “to give a verisimilitude to his fictional world, a veneer of plausibility that imbued his tales of cosmic terror with a grounding in the plausibly real”. It was first mentioned in the The Hound, written in September 1922 and published in February 1924 in Weird Tales. Lovecraft did write a fictional history of the book, adding to the book’s mystique. According to this fictional history, the Necronomicon was written by a “Mad Arab” named Abdul Alhazred (a name Lovecraft used when playing Arabian Nights as a boy) some time in the 8th century. It has also been claimed that Abdul Alhazred is not a proper Arabic name, showing the level of research that went into Lovecraft’s fictitious book. The fact that it is fiction was clearly stated even by Lovecraft himself, as outlined in Quotes Regarding the Necronomicon from Lovecraft’s Letters, but this didn’t seem to deter people who chose to believe it was real …and it developed a “life” of its own.
Since the time of Lovecraft, several real books have been written and published under the name Necronomicon and there has been an overwhelming number of articles, websites and books about the Necronomicon, some proclaiming it to be real and others revealing it as a hoax. Some time ago I came across an excellent essay called Inside the Necronomicon, by Jason Colavito which is “a look into the fabulous history of the world’s most famous non-existent grimoire” and should be required reading by anyone considering using information supposedly from the Necronomicon as a basis for a real magical practice. They may change their mind after reading it, and if not, well… that’s their choice.
Early last year my curiosity got the better of me when the Necronomicon came up for discussion again, and I decided to buy a book about it. The one I eventually chose (from the few that were available via online bookstores) was Grimoire of the Necronomicon by D. Tyson (2008), Woodbury, Minn: Llewellyn Publications. In the introduction Tyson says:
The main purpose of this grimoire is to provide a practical system of ritual magic based on the mythology of the alien gods known as the Old Ones, who are described in the fiction of H.P. Lovecraft, and appear prominently in Lovecraft’s Necronomicon. It is designed to give formal structure to what has until now been a vague collection of alien races and potent individual beings described in the writings of Lovecraft.
It may be objected that the Old Ones do not exist — that they are only fantasy beings created in the mind of a writer of horror stories. The same objection might be made about the reality of fairies, yet there are complex systems of practical rituals devoted to fairy magic and human interaction with fairies.
One major difference between fairies and the Old Ones is that fairies and other such beings have a documented history stretching back for many, many years across different cultures around the world whereas there is no mention of “Old Ones” or anything like them prior to Lovecraft’s stories. Although, Tyson does provide the following information about that:
In a general sense, “Old Ones” refers to only those who existed before the dawn of human history. It is applicable to the antediluvian giants mentioned in Genesis, the titans of Greek mythology, and the creatures of the waters of chaos that are described in the ancient lore of Sumer and so many other human cultures. The Old Ones are those who ruled the Earth in the before times, the ages prior to the modern evolution of the human race and the rise of human civilization.
I don’t think the Grimoire of the Necronomicon is quite my thing as I haven’t felt compelled to read very much of it …one day I might finish it, but there are other pursuits I’d rather spend my time on.
Just yesterday the Necronomicon came up in conversation again, which tweaked my interest in doing a little more Googling and finally posting this blog about it. Looking at this from an eclectic Pagan perspective one has to wonder, with so many people actively practicing their belief in the mythos surrounding the Necronomicon and lending their energy to it, if perhaps it does now exist in the astral and the “Old Gods” such as Cthulhu may well have been brought to life as thought forms or astral entities of some kind? Hypothetically and magically speaking this is quite plausible, especially if you believe in the concept of the Gods and Goddesses being archetypal energies that have been created by the human mind.
The term Archetype began with Carl Jung. In Jung’s terms, ‘Archetype’ is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. These patterns derive from a universal collective unconscious which in metaphysics is called the Grids, Akashic Records, Sea of Consciousness, that which creates our reality. In this context, archetypes are innate prototypes for ideas, which may subsequently become involved in the interpretation of observed phenomena. (From Crystalinks)
Or perhaps, as has been speculated by many others, Lovecraft was subconsciously tapping into or channelling some great ancient knowledge (even though no historical evidence of such has ever been uncovered) while believing he was writing fiction based on dreams and fanciful thoughts. In any case, those who do believe have as much right to their beliefs as followers of any other spirituality or religion. It’s not likely that anyone will ever be able to conclusively prove or disprove the existence of the many deities worshipped around the world (although many fundamentalists would claim otherwise) as religious and spiritual experiences are all so very subjective. Basically if it’s not doing any harm, whatever floats your boat is fine by me. 😀
In my online searching today I came across the web page for the Rare Book Library of the University of Sydney which contains a significant collection of works on witchcraft, demonology, exorcism and the occult. Ironically, their section entitled Grimoires & Spellbooks contains not one, but two entries for the Necronomicon — the first and the last entries on the page — and neither entry acknowledges Lovecraft at all, which could be very misleading and give credence to the idea that the Necronomicon is the real deal. After all, Sydney Uni wouldn’t make a mistake now would they? 😉
In addition to The H.P. Lovecraft Archive, which contains a wealth of information about the man and his works, I also came across an article which lists a collection of books about the Necronomicon, which I thought I’d copy here as it contains a comprehensive list of resources for anyone wishing to find out more about this enigmatic tome.
The Necronomicon Collection
(Copied from http://www.jamesthered.net/Documents/NecronomiconCollection.doc)
by James Gilbreath, LS 505
In the first half of the 20th century, H.P. Lovecraft wrote a sizable body of gothic horror fiction. The world of his creations, later termed the Cthulhu Mythos by pulp and horror writers, contained dark magic, insanity-inducing creatures, and powerful beings from beyond space and time. One of his creations was the Necronomicon, a horrific grimoire written by the insane necromancer Abdul Alhazred.
Decades after Lovecraft’s death, his writings became popular and gained widespread readership. Strangely, the Necronomicon became a cultural phenomenon, as it appeared in various movies, stories, and other media. Many spellbooks were published that claimed to be the authentic Necronomicon, and some individuals began to believe that Lovecraft had written of an actual book rather than a fictional creation.
The Necronomicon phenomenon has grown to a noticeable size, but due to the nature of the community interested in the work, materials pertaining to the Necronomicon are often obscure or difficult to locate. Thus, a thorough collection of materials related to the Necronomicon is highly desirable for Lovecraft fans, individuals interested in the phenomenon from an academic viewpoint, or practitioners of the occult arts.
A collection of all materials related to the Necronomicon would be quite unusable, so several criteria are utilized in order to reduce the volume of works. Since the collection focuses on popular culture and modern interpretations of the Necronomicon, materials created by Lovecraft and other originators of the Cthulhu Mythos are excluded. Items using Necronomicon as a title without any relation to Lovecraft’s original ideas, the basic premise of the Necronomicon, or the occult in general are not included. As the collection is created by and intended for English speaking individuals, only English language Necronomicons and related materials are included. Lastly, as the internet is filled with vague, murky rumors surrounding the Necronomicon, only items with verifiable citations and substantive claims to existence are included.
The search for Necronomicon material began with scholarly databases. After searching twelve databases with the keyword “Necronomicon”, only two pertinent articles were revealed. This is not surprising as the Necronomicon and occult topics are generally absent from academia.
Next, a keyword search in WorldCat returned a great plethora of sources. Many items were not truly related to the subject or only used Necronomicon as the title, such as the journal and book by Andy Black about horror and erotic films. The interesting variety of materials found through this search prompted searching at otherwise non-intuitive sites, such as IMDB.com. Additional items were found through though a Google Books version of The Necronomicon Files and the Necronomicon Files online annotated bibliography.
After sources were identified, thorough searching of WorldCat.org, Amazon.com, IMDB.com, and Google were undertaken. Items judged to be unrelated to the subject were removed, as were materials without substantive information. As the great majority of these materials were not locally available, amateur and professional book reviews, online forum posts, and news items were consulted. These sources are a poor substitute to personal judgement when selecting items, but many of the selected materials are obscure or difficult to locate, which is one of the primary reasons for building the collection.
Alhazred, A., & De Camp, L. S. (1973). Al azif: (the Necronomicon). Philadelphia: Owlswick Press.
One of the first hoax Necronomicons published. The book consists of an introduction by L. Sprague De Camp followed by pages of pseudo-Arabic script. While other “true” versions of the Necronomicon are workable spell books, this volume is simply indecipherable scribbling and an admitted hoax; however, the book is still important as a part of the Necronomicon phenomenon.
Bryant, R. (1972). “Stalking the Elusive Necronomicon.” HPL. Birmingham, Al: Meade and Penny Frierson.
HPL is an excellent collection of Lovecraft related works, but Bryant’s article is the only piece that fully focuses on the Necronomicon. Bryant claims that Lovecraft’s creation was influenced by the Picatrix, an occult amalgamation of Arabic works originally put together in the middle ages.
Caywood, C. (1993). “The book whose reputation preceded it.” School Library Journal, 39(11), 48.
Caywood discusses the Necronomicon in Lovecraft’s writings and the appearence of hoax Necronomicons.
Clore, D. (2001). “The lurker at the threshold of interpretation: Hoax Necronomicons and paratextual noise.” Lovecraft Studies, 42, 61-69.
Clore’s semi-scholarly article examines the phenomenon behind hoax Necronomicons.
Fitzgerald, J. (2008). The Necronomicon: Everything you ever wanted to know. CreateSpace.
This work, printed through Amazon’s self-publishing subsidiary, is simply a poor aggregation of material available on the web.
Fox, Darren (1996). The Necronomian: the workbook to the avon Necronomicon. Palm Springs: International Guild of Occult Sciences.
Fox’s Necronomian is a hardback supplement to Simon’s Necronomicon. The book contains a great deal of material from Simon’s book and is somewhat difficult to find.
Giger, H.R. (1991). H.R. Giger’s Necronomicon. Beverly Hills, CA: Morpheus International.
Giger’s Necronomicon is a collection of his art, which tends to be gothic, grotesque, and disturbing. Rather than an interpretation of Lovecraft’s Necronomicon, this work is centered around modern interpretations of Lovecraft’s ideas.
Giger, H.R. (1992). H.R. Giger’s Necronomicon II. Beverly Hills, CA: Morpheus International.
This volume is a follow-up to Giger’s first Necronomicon.
Harms, D., & Gonce, J. W. (2003). The Necronomicon files: the truth behind Lovecraft’s legend. Boston, MA: Weiser Books.
This work is the first and only thorough study of the Necronomicon as a phenomenon. Harms and Gonce explore the various hoax versions of the Necronomicon and the grimoire as a part of popular culture. Several Necronomicon works have been released since the publishing of this volume, but the book continues to be an invaluable resource for Necronomicon study.
Hay, G. (1992). The Necronomicon. London: Skoob Books Pub.
Skoob Books’ edition of George Hay’s Necronomicon. This Necronomicon is another workable spell book with summoning rituals, incantations, and so forth. Included in the volume is an essay by Colin Wilson claiming that the Necronomicon does exist and blasts Lovecraft for claiming otherwise.
Kuriakos (2007). The Necronomicon Ritual Book. United States: Lulu.com.
This Necronomicon is another self-published book. Kuriakos claims that Simon’s version is false, and only through the true rituals in this work can one summon powerful beings from the original Necronomicon.
Lovecraft, H. P., Lovecraft, H. P., & Joshi, S. T. (1980). A history of the Necronomicon: being a short, but complete outline of the history of this book, its author, its various translations and editions from the time of the writing (A.D. 730) of the Necronomicon to the present day. West Warwick, R.I.: Necronomicon Press.
This work is a facsimile of a short monograph originally written by H.P. Lovecraft. The Necronomicon Press edition includes an afterword by S.T. Joshi, possibly the foremost Lovecraft scholar. While this work was written by H.P. Lovecraft, Joshi’s addition to the work places the monograph in a modern context.
Marshall, J. P. (2003). The reality of the Necronomicon: an exploration of H.P. Lovecraft’s imaginary book. Thesis (M.A.)–Clark University, 2004.
Marshall’s Master’s thesis is similar in scope to Harm’s and Gonce’s The Necronomicon Files. The thesis is held at the Clark University in Massachusetts, which might make obtaining a copy difficult.
Mason, Asenath (2007). Necronomicon gnosis: a practical introduction. Rudolstadt: Ed. Roter Drache.
Mason’s Necronomicon is a workable spell book that places an emphasis on Lovecraft’s Cthulhu Mythos and guides users in working magic through this paradigm. Reviews indicate that while the work is still quite different than the original idea of the Necronomicon, the work is much more true to Lovecraft’s idea than many other versions.
Messner-Loebs, W., and Ritchie, A. (2008). Necronomicon. Los Angeles: Boom! Studios.
This Necronomicon is a four-issue comic book series about the history of the Necronomicon. The story follows Henry Said, a college student from the 1920’s who is hired to find the Necronomicon and follows the journey of Abdul Alhazred. The work stays true to Lovecraft’s vision of the grimoire.
Owings, M. (1967). The Necronomicon: a study. Baltimore: Mirage.
Owings’ work discusses the use of the Necronomicon in fiction. The short monograph was one of the early Necronomicon analyses.
Price, R. M., & Aletti, S. B. (1996). The Necronomicon: selected stories and essays concerning the blasphemous tome of the mad Arab. Cthulhu cycle book, 12. Oakland, CA: Chaosium.
This compilation features several stories in which the Necronomicon plays an important role. Also presented are five sections of the Necronomicon and their various interpretations. The work is somewhat dense for a casual reader but will be appreciated by those interested in the Necronomicon phenomenon.
Simon (1977). Necronomicon. New York: Avon Books.
Simon’s Necronomicon is the most well known version of the hoax Necronomicons. The book is a workable grimoire based on Sumerian belief systems, but the work has little content similar to that of Lovecraft’s vision of the tome.
Simon. (1998). Necronomicon spellbook. New York: Avon Books.
Simon’s follow-up work to his Necronomicon. This volume contains supplemental spells that are more usable than those listed in the original book. As with all of Simon’s other books, there is controversy surrounding this one.
Simon. (2006). The gates of the Necronomicon. New York: Avon.
Simon’s third Necronomicon work. Gates contains supplementary material to Simon’s Necronomicon and information relating to the basics of working magic. Some indicate that the material contained in this book is contradictory to information in the previous two volumes.
Simon. (2006). Dead names: the dark history of the Necronomicon. New York: Avon.
Simon’s fourth Necronomicon-related work. In this volume, Simon attempts to demonstrate that his Necronomicon is a true work and attacks critics who claim that the Necronomicon does not exist.
Sitsky, L. (1989). Necronomicon 18 aphorisms for clarinet and piano.
18 Aphorisms for Clarinet and Piano is a musical piece written by the Russian composer Larry Sitsky. The work is dark in nature, much like the Necronomicon that the composition is named after.
St. George, E. A. (1982). The Necronomicon. London (38 Woodfield Ave., W5 1PA): Spook Enterprises.
St. George’s Necronomicon is somewhat strange compared to other “true” Necronomicons. This version was supposedly authored by Al-Rashid of Sothis rather than Alhazred. Alhazred wrote of horrors beyond space and time, while Al-Rashid discussed both mundane and angelic magic.
Turner, R., Hay, G., Wilson, C., Shore, P., & Arnold, A. (1995). The R’lyeh text. Skoob esoterica. London: Skoob Books Pub.
The R’Lyeh Text is a direct follow-up to Skoob Esoterica’s version of the Necronomicon. This work is not as well constructed as Skoob Esoterica’s Necronomicon, but should be included for completeness.
Tyson, D., & Lovecraft, H. P. (2004). Necronomicon: the wanderings of Alhazred. St. Paul, Minn: Llewellyn.
Tyson’s Necronomicon does not attempt to be a workable grimoire; rather, it is intended to be a more “true” version of the work as Lovecraft interpreted it. The book focuses on Alhazred, the theoretical author of the Necronomicon, and his explorations that prompted the Necronomicon to be written.
Tyson, D., & Lovecraft, H. P. (2006). Alhazred. Woodbury, Minn: Llewellyn Publications.
In this work, Tyson focuses on the life of Abdul Alhazred, the supposed author of the Necronomicon. The book is more related to Ahlazred than the Necronomicon, but, as Alhazred is a major part of the Necronomicon story, the work is quite relevant.
Tyson, D. (2007). Secrets of the Necronomicon. Woodbury, Minn: Llewellyn Publications.
Secrets is Tyson’s third Necronomicon publication, but whereas the other works are books, this is a tarot divination set. The set is beautifully illustrated by Anne Stokes. Figures in the Cthulhu mythos are depicted on the trumps, and each of the suites tells a different story through the illustration. Included with the set is a book discussing the Necronomicon, divination, and different tarot spreads for this set.
Tyson, D. (2008). Grimoire of the Necronomicon. Woodbury, Minn: Llewellyn Publications.
Grimoire of the Necronomicon is Tyson’s fourth Necronomicon work. This volume attempts to construct a workable framework for exploring Lovecraft’s mythos. Tyson claims that this volume allows individuals to try to contact Great Old Ones and other powerful beings, which would be a foolhardy endeavor given Lovecraft’s descriptions of the entities.
Balazs, J. (2008). The Mars project [Motion Picture]. Canada: Jon B Productions.
The Mars Project is a student film in which Balazs interviews Khari “Conspiracy” Stewart. Stewart, part of Supreme Being Unit, claims that he opened a copy of the Necronomicon in 1997 and was cursed thereafter.
Campbell, B., Davidtz, E., Raimi, S., & LoDuca, J. (1998). Army of darkness [Motion Picture]. Universal City, CA: Universal Home Video.
Army of Darkness is the third installment in the Evil Dead trilogy. After Ash is sucked through the time portal, he is sent to the middle ages where he must quest for the Necronomicon which contains a spell that can send him home. The Necronomicon in this movie displays bizarre powers, such as the ability to replicate itself and set traps.
Cipolla, F., Reinblatt, G., Byrne, J., Coker, J., Klapmeyer, R., Walker, T., et Al. (2007). Evil dead, the musical original cast recording [CD]. United States: Time Life.
This recording is a musical adaptation of Sam Raimi’s “Evil Dead” movies. The musical includes a song entitled “Do the Necronomicon.”
Dee, S., Stockwell, D., Begley, E., & Bochner, L. (2001). The Dunwich horror [Motion Picture]. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment.
The Dunwich Horror is a bizarrely psychedelic interpretation of Lovecraft’s story of the same name. Wilbur Whatley (Dean Stockwell) steals the Necronomicon and Nancy Wagner (Sandra Dee) in order to summon a horror from beyond space and time. The movie contains several racy scenes with Sandra Dee, including momentary nudity.
Harris, J., Woods, J. (1970). Equinox [Motion Picture]. United States: Tonylyn Productions, Inc.
A movie in which a group of teenagers is pursued by monsters, a ranger, and a cult for possessing the Necronomicon.
Devil’z Rejects. (2006). Necronomicon [CD]. United States: Dynasty Muzik.
A rap album based loosely on the Necronomicon. The music is fairly terrible, but the album is still part of the Necronomicon body of works.
Nox Arcana. (2004). Necronomicon [CD]. Cleveland: Monolith Graphics.
Nox Arcana’s Necronomicon is a musical interpretation of Lovecraft’s Necronomicon. Nox Arcana’s gothic-ambient sound provides a suitably dark atmosphere for the grimoire.
Ouellette, J.-P., Rhys-Davies, J., Stephenson, M. K., Ford, M., & Lovecraft, H. P. (1993). The Unnamable II the statement of Randolph Carter [Motion Picture]. Los Angeles: Prism Entertainment.
Unnable II has very little to do with either “The Unnable” or “The Statement of Randolph Carter;” rather, the movie consists of a generic college-centered horror movie with jumbled Lovecraftian elements. While the Necronomicon is generally treated as a McGuffin, Unnable II does demonstrate how generic horror movies have adopted and adapted Lovecraft’s creations for their own purposes.
Payne, B., Bauer, B., Meyer, B., Warner, D., Coleman, S., Lynch, R., et Al. (1996). Necronomicon book of the dead [Motion Picture]. United States: New Line Home Video.
Necronomicon is a movie centered around the titular grimoire. The story frame stars Jeffrey Combs as H.P. Lovecraft who is searching for the Necronomicon. The movie includes four stories that are roughly based on Lovecraft’s work.
Price, V., Paget, D., Chaney, L., & Corman, R. (1991). The Haunted palace [Motion Picture]. New York: HBO Video.
The Haunted Palace is named after one of Edgar Allen Poe’s short stories but is vaguely based on Lovecraft’s “The Case of Charles Dexter Ward.” The movie is an interesting amalgamation of 1960’s-interpreted classical horror interspersed with Lovecraftian elements. The climax of the movie features Charles Dexter Ward (Vincent Price) using the Necronomicon to summon a great old one to devour his wife, Ann Ward (Debra Paget).
Raimi, S., Tapert, R., Campbell, B., Sandweiss, E., Delrich, H., Baker, B., et Al. (2002). The evil dead [Motion Picture]. Troy, MI: Anchor Bay Entertainment.
Evil Dead involves a group of college students who travel to a cabin deep in the woods. The group finds the Necronomicon, a spell book bound in human skin, and a recording of a professor reading a passage from the book. The students replay the tape, summoning the Evil Dead.
Raimi, S., Spiegel, S., Campbell, B., Berry, S., Hicks, D., Wesley, K., et Al. (2000). Evil dead II [Motion Picture]. Troy, MI: Anchor Bay Entertainment.
Strangely, Evil Dead II is a retelling of the first movie. The protagonist must again deal with the consequences of playing the Necronomicon recording. At the end of the film, the Necronomicon opens a time portal that engulfs the protagonist.
Ward, F., & Campbell, M. (1991). Cast a deadly spell [Motion Picture]. New York: HBO Video.
Cast a Deadly Spell is a 1940’s hard-boiled detective movie mixed with urban fantasy. Detective H.P. Lovecraft is hired to locate the Necronomicon. While the Necronomicon is merely used as a McGuffin in many horror films, it actually plays a significant part in the plot.
Zorn, J., Lowenstern, M., Smith, T., & Zorn, J. (2004). Magick [CD]. New York: Tzadik.
Magic contains two pieces: Sortilege and Necronomicon for String Quartet. This musical interpretation of the Necronomicon is an energetic piece, but the composer created the work as a modern interpretation of Necronomicon-related ideas rather than the work envisioned by Lovecraft.
Alquier, L. (2005). The Necronomicon Project. Retrieved September 17, 2008 from http://www.alquier.org/HPL/azif/n_index.html
The Necronomicon Project is interesting in that the site does not claim to be the authentic Necronomicon; rather, the page explains that the project is an artistic interpretation of the fictional work. The site consists of seven books made up of contributions from various writers.
Clore, D. (2008). The Dan Clore Necronomicon Page. Retrieved on September 16, 2008, from http://www.geocities.com/soho/9879/necpage.htm
Clore’s webpage may not be as academically rigorous as Harms and Gonce’s site, but the page contains many entries containing basic information about the Necronomicon. This site is a good starting point for those who are unfamiliar with the grimoire.
Harms, D., and Gonce, J.W. (2003). The Necronomicon files. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.necfiles.org/
The Necronomicon Files website is a project website for the book of the same name. The site contains updated information relevant to the book and lists online information relevant to the study of the Necronomicon as a phenomenon.
Legard, P. (1997). Grimorium Imperium. Retrieved September 18, 2008 from http://www.theocculture.com/Library/Old%20Grimoires/Grimoirium_Imperium.pdf
The Grimorium Imperium purports to be a transcription of John Dee’s copy of the Necronomicon. The text was actually written by practicing occultist Phil Legard in 1997. The work stays fairly true to the Cthulhu Mythos and contains many sigil illustrations.
Low, Colin (1995). “The Necronomicon Anti-FAQ.” Digital Brilliance. Retrieved September 18, 2008 from http://www.digital-brilliance.com/necron/necron.htm
A FAQ about the true history of the Necronomicon. Low openly admits that the work is a hoax.
Osopaus, J. (1996). Necronomicon Novum. Retrieved on September 17, 2008 from http://www.cs.utk.edu/~mclennan/BA/NN.html
Osopaus’ Necronomicon is not based on Lovecraft’s notion of the work, but he constructs one based on vague notions of the original depiction and uses real ancient historical texts.
It is interesting to observe the mystery that shrouds the Necronomicon, even on the internet. Many Necronomicon resources can be found online, but others are simply rumors. Even some sources that Harms and Gonce (2003) discuss can no longer be found.
Individuals will protest the exclusion of some Necronomicon-related materials from this collection; however, all items selected or ignored follow the methodology for building this collection. Internet searches certainly found other pertinent materials, but due to lack of information about the sources, the items could not be included. Even with the omissions, this collection is still pertinent and useful for the users for whom it was created.
Clore, D. (2008). The Dan Clore Necronomicon Page. Retrieved on September 16, 2008, from http://www.geocities.com/soho/9879/necpage.htm
Harms, D. (1998). “The Necronomicon: An Annotated Bibliography.” The Necronomicon Files. Retrieved on September 18, 2008 from http://www.necfiles.org/bib.htm
Harms, D., & Gonce, J. W. (2003). The Necronomicon files: the truth behind Lovecraft’s legend. Boston, MA: Weiser Books.